Jakarta NoSQL Driver for the AppDev Pack, Part 2

Sep 26, 2022, 9:55 AM

Tags: java jnosql
  1. Jakarta NoSQL Driver for the AppDev Pack, Part 1
  2. Jakarta NoSQL Driver for the AppDev Pack, Part 2
  3. Jakarta NoSQL Driver for Keep

In my last post, I talked about how I implemented a partial Jakarta NoSQL driver using the AppDev Pack as a back end instead of the Notes.jar classes used by the primary implementation. Though the limitations in the ADP mean that it lacks a number of useful features compared to the primary one, it was still an interesting experiment and has the nice side effect of working with essentially any Java app server and Java version 8 or above.

Beyond the Proton API calls, the driver brought up the interesting topic of handling authentication. Proton has three ways of working in this regard:

  • Anonymous, which is what you might expect based on how that works elsewhere in Domino. This is easy but not particularly useful except in specific circumstances.
  • Client certificate authentication, where you create a TLS keychain for a given user and associate it with a Directory user (e.g. CN=My Proton App/O=MyOrg), and then your app performs all operations as that user. This is basically like if you ran a remote app with NRPC using a client Notes ID.
  • Act-as-User, which builds on the above authentication by configuring an OAuth broker service that can hand out OIDC tokens on behalf of named users. This is sort of like server-to-server communication with the "Trusted Servers" config field in the server doc, but different in key ways.

Client Certificate Authentication

When doing app development, the middle route makes sense as your starting point, since most of your actual work will likely be the same regardless of whether you later then add on act-as-user support. For that, you'll follow the guide to set up your TLS keychain and then feed those files to the com.hcl.domino.db.model.Server object:

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Path base = Paths.get(BASE_PATH);
		
File ca = base.resolve("rootcrt.pem").toFile();
File cert = base.resolve("clientcrt.pem").toFile();
File key = base.resolve("clientkey.pem").toFile();

Server server = new Server("ceres.frostillic.us", 3003, ca, cert, key, null, null, Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor());

The use of java.io.File classes here is a bit of a shame, but not the end of the world. In practice, you'd likely store your keychain somewhere on the filesystem anyway and then feed the BASE_PATH property to your app via an environment variable. Otherwise, if they were pulled from some other source, you could use Files.createTempFile to store them on the filesystem while your app is running. Those nulls are for the passphrases for the certificates, so they might be populated for you. For the last parameter, making a new executor is fine, but you might want to hand it a ManagedExecutorService.

You can initialize this connection basically anywhere - I put it in a ServletRequestListener to init and term the object per-request, but I think it would actually be fine to do it in a ServletContextListener and keep it app-wide. I did it out of habit from Notes.jar and its heavy requirements on threads and the way Session objects are different per-user, but that's not how Proton connections work.

This form of authenticate is a prerequisite for Act-as-User below, but it might suffice for your needs anyway. For example, if you have a "utility" app, like a bot that looks up data and posts messages to Slack or something, you can call it good here.

Act-as-User

But though the above may suffice sometimes, the integration of user identity with data access is one of the hallmarks of Domino, so Domino apps that wouldn't need Act-as-User support are few and far between.

Act-as-User is a bit daunting to set up, though. In traditional server-to-server communication in Domino, it suffices to just add a server's name or group to the "Trusted Servers" list in the server doc of the server being accessed. Then, it will trust any old name that the app-housing server sends along. Generally, this will be a user that was already authenticated with Domino, like using an XPages-supplied Session object to access a remote server, but it doesn't have to be.

Act-as-User, though, uses OpenID Connect with an authentication server to do the actual authentication, and then the Proton task is told to accept those tokens as legal for acting on behalf of a given user. While you could in theory write your own OIDC server that dispenses tokens for any user name willy-nilly, in practice you'll almost definitely use an existing implementation. In the default case, that implementation will in turn almost definitely be IAM, which is an OAuth broker service with the AppDev Pack that stores its configuration data in an NSF but and reads users from Domino (or elsewhere) via LDAP.

IAM, though, isn't special in this regard. It's packaged with the ADP, sure, but the way it deals with tokens is entirely standards-based. That means that any compatible implementation can fill this role, and, since I'd heard great things about Keycloak, I figured I'd give that a shot. With some gracious assistance from Heiko Voigt, I was able to get this working - I don't want to steal his future thunder by going into too much detail, but honestly the main hurdles for me were just around learning how Keycloak works. Once you have the concepts down, you basically plug in the Keycloak client details in for the IAM ones in the same configuration.

With that set up, you can feed your user token from the web app into your Proton API calls, and then your actions will be running as your user in the same way as if you were authenticated in an on-server XPages or other app. The way this manifests in the Java API is a little weird, but it works well enough: almost all Proton calls have a varargs portion at the end of their method signature that takes OptionalArg instances. One such type is OptionalAccessToken, which takes your auth token as a String. I have a method that will stitch in an access token when present. That gets passed in when making calls, such as to read documents:

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OptionalItemNames itemNamesArg = new OptionalItemNames(itemNames);
OptionalStart startArg = new OptionalStart((int)skip);
OptionalCount countArg = new OptionalCount(limit < 1 ? Integer.MAX_VALUE : (int)limit);
			
List<Document> docs = database.readDocuments(
	dql,
	composeArgs(
		itemNamesArg,
		startArg,
		countArg
	)
).get();

App Authentication

Okay, so that's what you do when you have a setup and a token, but that leaves the process of the user actually acquiring the token. From the user's perspective, this will generally take the form of doing an "OAuth dance" where, when the user tries to access a protected resource, they're sent over to Keycloak to authenticate, which then sends them back to the app with token in hand.

There are a lot of ways one might accomplish this, varying language-to-language, framework-to-framework, and server-to-server. You will be shocked to learn that I'm using Open Liberty for my app here, and that comes with built-in support for OIDC.

Before I go further, I should put forth a big caveat: I'm really muddling through with this one for the time being. The setup I have only kind of works, and is clearly not the ideal one, but it was enough to make the connection happen. I'm not sure if the right path long-term is to keep using this built-in feature or to switch to either a different built-in option or another library entirely. So... absolutely do not take anything here as advice in the correct way to do this.

Anyway, with that out of the way, you can configure your Liberty server to talk to your Keycloak server (or IAM, probably, but I didn't do that):

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<openidConnectClient id="client01"
    clientId="liberty-tester"
    clientSecret="some-client-secret"
    discoveryEndpointUrl="https://some.keycloak.server/auth/realms/master/.well-known/openid-configuration"
    signatureAlgorithm="RS256"
    sslRef="httpSsl"
    accessTokenInLtpaCookie="true"
    userIdentifier="preferred_username"
    groupIdentifier="groups">
</openidConnectClient>
<ssl id="httpSsl" trustDefaultCerts="true" keyStoreRef="myKeyStore" trustStoreRef="OIDCTrustStore" />
<keyStore id="myKeyStore" password="super-secure-password1" type="PKCS12" location="${server.config.dir}/BasicKeyStore.p12" />
<keyStore id="OIDCTrustStore" password="super-secure-password2" type="PKCS12" location="${server.config.dir}/OIDCTrustStore.p12" />

The keyStores there contain appropriate certificate chains for the TLS connection to your Keycloak server, while the clientId and clientSecret match what you configure/generate on Keyclaok for this new client app.

What got me able to actually use this token for downstream access was the accessTokenInLtpaCookie property. If you set that, then your HttpServletRequest objects after the initial one will have an oidc_access_token property on them containing your token in the format that Proton needs. So that's where the ContextDatabaseSupplier in the previous post got it:

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@Produces
public AccessTokenSupplier getAccessToken() {
	return () -> {
		HttpServletRequest request = CDI.current().select(HttpServletRequest.class).get();
		return (String)request.getAttribute("oidc_access_token");
	};
}

This is also one of the parts that makes me think I'm not quite doing this ideally. It's weird that the token shows up in only requests after the first, though that wouldn't be an impediment in a lot of app types. It's also very unfortunate to have the app use a server-specific property like that.

Fortunately, Jakarta Security 3.0 sprouted official OIDC support, though the build of Open Liberty I was using didn't quite have all the pieces in place for that - reasonable, considering Jakarta EE 10 only officially came out yesterday and this was weeks ago. It looks like that may provide the token in a contextual object, so I'll have to give that a shot once support settles in.

With my setup in place, janky as it may be, I'm able to access a resource (e.g. a JAX-RS endpoint) marked with @RolesAllowed("uma_authorization") and the server will automatically kick me over to Keycloak and then accept the token when I get back. Then, I can pick that up from the request attributes and use it for Domino data access. Keycloak is getting its user directory from Domino via LDAP in the same way as IAM usually would, but, like IAM with AD, it could be configured to use different user directories. I don't know that I'll want to do that, but it's good to know.

Conclusion

Like the original driver itself, this was mostly an educational exercise for me. I don't currently have any requirements to use the AppDev Pack or OIDC/Keycloak, but I'd wanted to dip my toes in both for a while now, and I'm pleased that I came out successful. I imagine that I'll have an occasion to implement something like this eventually. It may not be the same specific parts, but the core concepts are common, like in Keep's JWT and OAuth support. It's a neat setup, and it's definitely worth doing something similar if you have some experimentation time on your hands.

Jakarta NoSQL Driver for the AppDev Pack, Part 1

Sep 9, 2022, 10:20 AM

Tags: java jnosql
  1. Jakarta NoSQL Driver for the AppDev Pack, Part 1
  2. Jakarta NoSQL Driver for the AppDev Pack, Part 2
  3. Jakarta NoSQL Driver for Keep

Though the bulk of the work I've been doing for the XPages Jakarta EE project is to bring JEE technologies to Domino, the NoSQL driver has been designed to lead a double life: it works in an XPages context, but it's written to not have any XPages dependencies. One reason for this is that I want it to be usable if you use, for example, the Open Liberty runtime project to side-car apps on a Domino server but still use Notes.jar for data access.

Another reason for its organization, though, is that I intended for the driver to be portable across implementations. The driver itself is split into a main bundle and a ".lsxbe" implementation bundle. My original thought was to make that ready for a JNX or Domino JNA implementation, but it's pretty flexible.

Proton

And that brings me to the topic of this post: the AppDev Pack. I'd actually not used the AppDev Pack at all until I started in on this little project. While I like the idea, it at first only had a JS client, and then even with a Java client lacked some important capabilities I'd need for most of what I do. That's still the case, unfortunately, but my general annoyance with the problems of developing on top of a local Notes runtime tipped the scales to get me to investigate it.

In essence, the core part of the AppDevPack - the Proton addin - is kind of like a modern take on the CORBA driver for Notes.jar, in that it provides a remote way to make API calls on the server that are "low-level-ish" and ideally higher-performance than REST APIs. Since it's remote, it imposes no requirements on the environment of the app making the calls, and could in theory work with any language that has a gRPC library (though in practice HCL has only ever shipped JS and Java clients without providing the gRPC spec to generate others).

The API that Proton provides is heavily geared around batch operations, focusing on using DQL for querying. This suits my needs well, as Jakarta NoSQL essentially assumes you'll have something like DQL available to do arbitrary document queries. It's also geared around requesting specific items from documents to return, which further suits me well - for efficiency purposes, I wrote code into the LSXBE driver to only read desired items anyway, so that adapted naturally.

The Driver

So, over the long weekend here, I set out into writing a driver suitable for use in standalone JEE applications to access Domino via Proton. The goal here is to make it so that code written to target the LSXBE driver will work the same way with this Proton-based one, with the only differences being limitations in what Proton provides and a switch to providing a lotus.domino.Database context to providing a com.hcl.domino.db.model.Database one.

And, though the limitation list there is a bit lengthy, I accomplished the main part of my goal there. Since it shares a lot of code in common with the LSXBE driver, the implementation here is pretty small. The bulk of the code happens in ProtonDocumentCollectionManager, which is the implementation of all the raw JNoSQL primitives - insert, update, select, etc. - and then ProtonEntityConverter, which is the utility class that translates between Proton's concept of Document and JNoSQL's concept of DocumentEntity.

The Proton API is... very weird from a Java perspective. Some of it bears a little similarity to the NIO Files API if you squint, but otherwise it's just an odd duck. Fortunately, a consumer of this driver doesn't have to care about that beyond the initial connection to the server. The specifics of actually connecting to a server and opening a database are the same as with normal Proton use - you do that and then provide a CDI bean to hand off the Database object to the driver:

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@RequestScoped
public class ContextDatabaseSupplier {
	// This type of supplier is required
	@Produces
	public DatabaseSupplier get() {
		// Here, the `Database` object is set in a `ServletRequestListener`, though it likely could be app-wide
		return () -> {
			HttpServletRequest request = CDI.current().select(HttpServletRequest.class).get();
			return (Database)request.getAttribute(DatabaseContextListener.ATTR_DB);
		};
	}
	
	// This supplier is optional - leaving it out or returning null will cause the driver to skip performing Act-As-User
	@Produces
	public AccessTokenSupplier getAccessToken() {
		return () -> {
			HttpServletRequest request = CDI.current().select(HttpServletRequest.class).get();
			return (String)request.getAttribute("oidc_access_token");
		};
	}
}

Next Steps

Now, admittedly, I'm not sure how much more time I'm going to put into this driver. Though there are a few enhancements that could be made - attachments and rich text, namely - I'm probably not going to use this myself in the near future. The immediate cases I have where I'd want to use this would end up involving things like views that aren't currently accessible over Proton, and so it's be really just speculative development. Still, I wanted to make this to kick the tires a bit and see what's possible, and it's got my gears turning.

There'll also be a bit more I want to go over in the next post. In the above code block, I mention Act-As-User tokens; the driver will use those when provided, and the driver itself doesn't care how you acquire them, but it's an interesting topic on its own. During my testing, I was able to get a Liberty-hosted app performing OIDC authentication for its own login and then using that token for access to Proton, and I think that that will deserve some expansion on its own.

In the mean time, if you're curious, the driver is available up on GitHub:

https://github.com/OpenNTF/jnosql-driver-proton

The artifact is published to OpenNTF's Maven repository, though you'll need to follow the instructions in the README there to add the non-redistributable Proton client library to your local Maven repo.